Monthly Archives: February 2019

Gedoku-Ho

The Detoxification Technique.

The Japanese word doku means “poison” or “toxin” and the word ge means “to bring down.” This technique is used to detoxify a client or yourself.

Here’s how:

  • Place one hand on the tanden and the other behind it on the lower back.
  • Leave your hands there for 13 minutes while simultaneously imagining all the toxins leaving the body of the Reiki receiver.
  • Encourage the person receiving treatment to also imagine all the toxins leaving the body.

You can imagine that the toxins are flowing out through the bottoms of the feet into the care of Mother Earth for purification and recycling.

When complete, give the client a glass of Reiki charged water, and encourage them to drink plenty of water for the next 3 or 4 days to facilitate the detox.

Also suggest an Epsom salts bath to be taken that evening. This will leach the released toxins out of the system, and the person will be physically more comfortable the next day.

You might also mention that a detox may have a physical effect on the body. The person might experience a “healing crisis” as the body adjusts.

If Gedoku-ho is done at the end of a Reiki treatment, or if it is done as a stand alone treatment, remember to sweep and seal the aura, and detach yourself.

If Gedoku-ho is done at the beginning, or middle of the session, you would then continue with the treatment. Always follow your inner guidance and allow yourself to be directed by Spirit.

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

The Hara and the Tanden

The Hara is the physical midpoint of the human body, and the spiritual center of the human being. Located below the belly button and a little way into the body, it’s equidistant to the feet and the head, making it a natural place to be in balance, or regain balance. Physically it’s our center of gravity. Because it’s a vibrational center, the Hara is also our spiritual center.

Where is the Hara?

The hara is the area of your lower abdominal region below your navel. This area contains the tanden which is your center of gravity. The center of gravity is located approximately 2 inches below the navel and 1/3 the distance from the front of your body to the back of your body.

You may say that it is an organ not yet discovered by the west. It can’t be seen, however it can be felt. It has always been inside of you, but remains dormant unless you know to access it.

It is said that Ki is moved by the mind “… where the attention goes, ki flows…” To effortlessly focus the awareness is to place one’s energy there.

By placing effortless emphasis and energy at this area in the lower abdomen, integration of body and mind is deepened and strengthened, and the Spirit is dynamically grounded in the Present Moment.

Accessing The Tanden

The internal arts, which consist of modalities like yoga, meditation and tai chi place special emphasis on this point. It is the road leading to the full development of the human being and the home of your intuitive judgement among other things.

It is developed by sitting in meditation and focusing the mind on the area of the tanden. The body is fully relaxed in a seated meditative posture with a straight spine. This can be accomplished by sitting in a cross legged position with the back resting against the wall, or on a straight backed chair. It can also be accessed by standing for long periods of time with your feet in a hip width stance or focusing on it while moving thru the tai chi form.

In time you will feel like you have a thick rubberband gradually starting to fill with a liquid which feels like sparkling air. This is an occasion for celebration and the beginning of your relationship with the universe and yourself. Soon the energy felt in the tanden will start to circulate throughout your body.

It is called chi and is the internal energy which runs your body. It will always be present and gives you a point to which you can focus as you move thru your daily life experience. It is your anchor with the universe and is often referred to as a gut feeling with respect to your intuitive judgement.

The chi or internal energy gradually moves down under the pelvic floor and up the spine to the top of the head moving along what is called the microcosmic orbit. My teacher always referred to it as an energy intelligence as it now moves to open the energy pathways of the body commonly called meridians. These energy pathways form the basis of acupuncture points leading too the organs which are now charged with new energy enabling them to secrete the hormones which run the body.

In order to feel your relationship with the universe, you can again sit in meditation and focus on the breath. Gradually you will feel where the breath starts the inhale and the place where it starts to exhale. The inhale starts at the tanden filling the hara and starts at the exhale at the heart center. Soon you will feel that the universe is breathing you as you focus on your breath. Then you will start to experience that link to the universe or nature.

Physical Attributes:

The word hara means belly in Japanese, the area of the body bounded by the lower ribcage and pelvic bowl. It has significance in this regard, as well as vibrationally.

It contains the following organs:

  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Liver
  • Gall bladder
  • Spleen
  • Pancreas
  • Kidneys
  • Adrenal glands
  • Urinary bladder
  • Reproductive organs

This area is also part of oxygen-rich blood and nutrition reaching a growing fetus through the umbilical cord, and waste removal in the same way.

Vibrational Attributes:

The exact location of the Hara is known as tanden in Japan. It is the place where the ki of the organs and meridians of the entire body pool in the lower tanden, like a vast storehouse of power.

Tanden means “red rice field” or “red field.” This indicates a vast amount of powerful life force since rice is a primary source of nutrition and this is a whole field of it, glowing in red.

The Invisible Aspect:

There’s another, invisible aspect to the Hara. At birth the physical umbilical cord between the baby and the mother is removed. The baby begins breathing on its own and taking in nutrition through the mouth. There also remains a vibrational connection between the baby’s navel and the earth and universe. In fact multiple nonphysical cords continue to be active between the human being and all of life.

The earth and universe feeds us both biologically and spiritually through the Hara for the entirety of our life. We’re also in relationship to all of life from the same location. It’s a constant loop of resonance and reciprocity. We can actually experience the Oneness of life in the Hara and be able to truly embody it.

The Hara gives us a way of being in the world without attempting to escape it, and also returning to a wholesome relationship with the Earth. Spiritually, we’re able to deepen and develop our essential oneness with all of life as the realizations of the Hara filter into our consciousness.

Something To Think About:

For a table to exist, we need wood, a carpenter, time, skillfulness, and many other causes to be. The wood needs the forest, the sunshine, the rain, and so on. The carpenter needs his parents, breakfast, fresh air, and so on. And each of those things, in turn, has to be brought about by other conditions. If we continue to look in this way, we will see that nothing has been left out. Everything in the cosmos has come together to bring us this table. Looking deeply at the sunshine, the leaves of the tree, and the clouds, we can see the table. The one can be seen in the all, and the all can be seen in the one. ~
Thich Nhat Hanh

Sources:

Giving A Complete Reiki Treatment

Sometimes it helps to have a check-list or some reminders handy when you are getting ready to give a complete Reiki treatment. This is especially helpful when you are first starting out.

Most of the time I do Reiki on the fly, and all of the rules fly out the window… but sometimes it’s good to remember the little details of how to provide a great healing experience for your client.

Daily practices for being centered and clear:

Preparing the space:

  • Make sure the Reiki area is clean and free of clutter.
  • Burn incense, sage, or diffuse appropriate essential oils.
  • Put on music that is soothing and healing.
  • Light candles if that feels appropriate.

Spend a few minutes with the client:

  • Spend a few minutes talking with the person to gain rapport and to establish the intent of the session.
  • If this is the first session with this person, explain the Reiki process and hand positions.
  • Answer any questions the person may have.
  • You might also have the client read and fill out a client information form.

Before you start:

  • Wash your hands and rinse out your mouth.
  • Make sure the client and you are both comfortable.
  • Especially make sure that you can sit (or stand) in a comfortable position with arms and hands relaxed while giving the treatment.
  • Ask the client to close his or her eyes and meditate on being thankful for, and open to, all the healing energies that are coming.

Getting started:

  • Sit quietly with your hands on your legs doing Reiki on yourself for a few moments.
  • Find a feeling of love and peace, and allow it to grow within yourself.
  • Enfold your client in this feeling of love, gentleness and compassion.
  • Say a prayer asking your High Self, God, Angels, and all the healing forces of the Universe to work with you and your client to protect the process and create the most powerful healing possible.
  • If you choose, you can use any or all of the techniques to increase the power of Reiki. (See them here).

The treatment:

  • Reiji-Ho (intuitive guidance)
  • Chiryo (put Reiki where it is needed)
  • Or you can do a standard treatment with all the hand positions.
  • And/or you can use other techniques as guided.
  • Such as Gedoku-Ho (the detoxification technique).

End with:

The auric field first and then the physical body.

  • Smooth the aura.
  • Seal the energy.
  • Cut the connection.
  • Help the person to sit up.
  • Bring them a glass of water that has been charged with Reiki.
  • Encourage the client to drink plenty of water for the next few days.
  • Also suggest a warm bath with 2 cups of Epsom Salts.
  • If the person is really spaced out, have them go outside and get grounded.

After the session:

  • Say a short prayer of thanks.
  • Sit quietly doing Reiki on yourself.
  • Rinse your hands, face, and mouth with cold water.

Food for thought:

Techniques are fingers pointing to the moon. They are tools and not to be confused with the “real thing.” YOU are the real thing. YOU are the moon and not the finger pointing to it. Beyond thoughts and emotions, body and soul, good and bad, health and disease, Reiki energy, all your concepts, your dreams and aspirations, you are it!

Always ask yourself who is doing the experiencing. At the end of the day, the only question that remains is, “Who Am I, Who Am I, Who Am I?” When that question is answered, all suffering comes to an end.

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

Preparation For A Reiki Treatment

Before giving an intensive, or full body, Reiki treatment, it is important to prepare yourself.

Make sure the treatment area is as clean and as clutter free as possible. Even if all you do is clear off the sofa, this small step will help clear the energy around you and around the person you are working with.

Wash your hands, and rinse out your mouth with cold water. It is always important to do this before any full body Reiki treatment.

Close your eyes and focus on your physical body. Take three deep breaths and focus yourself on the work ahead, then say a silent prayer to ensure the best Reiki treatment available to them (or you).

You might also want to do Gassho, Reiji-Ho, Joshin Kokyuu-Ho, Kenyoku, or other forms of centering and meditation.

After accomplishing this, it is very important that you ground yourself. This keeps you present here on the physical plane. And if you are working on a client it helps you to keep them here. Without the grounding some people have a tendency to “travel out.” While this is not bad, it certainly can be difficult to “come back.”

When you are channeling energy, it is important to ground:

  • Make a connection to Mother Earth.
  • Stand with your feet flat on the floor, knees slightly bent.
  • Visualize a cord extending from your Root Chakra going deep into the Earth.
  • Down to the center of the Earth…
  • Hooking or attaching itself to the Earth.
  • Feel it.

Once you have made your connection you can then travel back up to your physical body and begin the treatment.

If, after a treatment, you or the client feel light headed and can’t seem to be present, here are a few suggestions:

  • Eat a meal, but stay away from sugar as this tends to be in direct opposition to what you wish to accomplish.
  • Take a walk indoors and become aware of the plant kingdom.
  • Hug a tree.
  • Take a shower.
  • Soak for at least 20 minutes in a warm bath with 2 cups of Epsom Salts. This also helps to discharge toxins and negative energy.

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

Reiji-Ho and Chiryo

Reiji means “indication of the spirit” and is the second pillar of Reiki. This is a process that prepares one to give a Reiki treatment. It involves the use of Gassho, a short prayer for the benefit of the client and focus on ones intuitive guidance.

Here’s how it works:

  • Do the Gassho meditation, but only for a minute or so.
  • Say a prayer giving thanks to the spirit of Reiki and asking it to begin flowing now.
  • Say a prayer on behalf of the client, asking that she/he be completely healed.
  • Bring your hands up to the third eye and ask the spirit of Reiki to guide your hands to where they are needed.
  • Now wait and see what happens.
  • Follow your inner guidance and allow your hands to be directed by the spirit of Reiki.
  • You will be guided to a certain area of the body.

You may see a body part in front of your inner eye, or the body part to be treated may “jump” out at you. You might even hear what part of the body to treat, or you may simply feel or know where you should start. Some people feel the prompting within their own bodies.

Notice any internal impressions you may get. Use all the clues available to you. Trust your intuitive self.

Chiryo

This word means “treatment” and is the third pillar of Reiki. The kind of treatment Dr. Usui taught relies on ones inner guidance rather than a predetermined set of hand positions. In this way, each treatment is unique and focuses on what the client needs to create wholeness.

After doing Reiji-ho, continue to follow your inner guidance allowing yourself to be directed. Treat as many places on the body or in the aura as you feel compelled to. During this process, allow yourself to enter a very relaxed state and to become one with the Reiki energy.

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

The Seven Subtle Bodies

A quantum is a precise amount of electromagnetic energy, and a quanta measures a burst of light and together they maintain the cosmos. Your inner universe is comprised of that same life force, and it’s put into motion through your thoughts, perceptions, and the consciousness by which you perceive yourself and the world around you.

This inner universe consists of seven subtle bodies that encompass your aura, which is merely an electromagnetic field that extends from your core to 4-5 feet into your perimeter.

What are the Seven Subtle Bodies, the Aura, and Chakras?

If you could see the invisible, you’d see the bio-photons that Fritz-Albert Popp proved the existence of the bio-photon back in the early 70’s. These photons are living particles of colored light (quanta) that the human body emits – this is your aura.

There are seven subtle layers, or bodies that comprise the auric system, and they exist very much like layers of an onion.

The seven subtle bodies hold various forms of information and correspond to the chakra system, which produces energies that create the aura. The seven subtle bodies work like the vehicles of your soul and are:

  • The Etheric Body – First Layer
  • The Emotional Body – Second Layer
  • The Mental Body – Third Layer
  • The Astral Level – Fourth Layer
  • The Etheric Template Body – Fifth Layer
  • The Celestial Body – Sixth Layer
  • The Casual Body or Ketheric Template – Seventh Layer

The Seven Subtle Bodies – Peeling Back the Layers

We can quickly break down these seven subtle bodies as such: three physical plane lower bodies, three spiritual upper bodies, and the astral body that bridges the two; however, some practitioners place the astral body among the spiritual.

The energies must pass through the astral plane and heart chakra, e.g. ‘The Fire of the Heart’ to be fully useful and communicative with the lower bodies. Particularly during states of meditation, one has a stronger connection with the seven subtle bodies and the ability to foster healing and balancing of the chakras.

The Etheric Body:

Of the seven subtle bodies, the Etheric body energy is only one-quarter to two inches beyond your physical self and resonates at nearly 20 cycles per minute. Kirlian photography allows the entire body to be perceived in generally a bluish the aura. Because the etheric body vibrates with and holds information pertaining to one’s physical health, energies can duplicate in the body.

The Emotional Body:

Extending about 1-3 inches from the body, the Emotional layer is obviously where your feelings reside. Typically exhibited by a bright combination of rainbow hues, the field can appear muddled and dulled when negative emotions and feelings are present.

The Mental Body:

From 3-8 inches from the body exists the Mental, or third layer of the aura. Containing your ideas, mental processes, and thoughts, this layer is typically associated with hues of yellow light that radiates around the shoulders and head, slightly extending into lower regions of the body to communicate with other levels.

The Astral Level:

Spreading about a foot from the body, the astral body represents the bridge to the spiritual realm and is the doorway to the astral plane. As with the emotional body, this field produces a myriad of color; however, because it’s strongly correlated to the heart chakra, more hues of pink are present in a loving individual.

The Etheric Template Body:

A template that exists far before the physical body form, this is the template for what you know as the physical body and is thought to co-exist in a different dimension. Extending about a foot and a half from the body, the Etheric template is only visible to advanced healers and clairvoyants. The building block of healing the lower etheric body, this template boasts deep, blue hues possibly because it is a blueprint containing all the forms of the physical world, creating a negative space.

The Celestial Body:

Communication with the spiritual ream occurs here as do feelings of ecstasy and unconditional love. Often appearing as bright, shimmering opalescent colors, one becomes more aware of the Celestial body as they raise their vibrations, level of awareness, and consciousness. As you work from the heart chakra to the sixth level, feelings of divine love and a connection with our fellow man become reality.

The Causal Body/Etheric Template:

The seventh layer is the mental level of one’s spiritual plane and contains all the other bodies within it, extending three to five feet from the body. This field resembles and egg and it pulsates and vibrates at high speeds that are considered the Zero Point / God Energy. A reflection of everything your soul has undergone, this is the link to the Divine and accepting your oneness with the universe.

The Chakras:

Each auric level has it’s own 7 chakras nestled within other auric chakras with each layer extending outwards, vibrating at a higher rate as they expound. This means that the set of seven chakras within the etheric body will vibrate at lower frequency than those within the casual body.

This process is what allows one’s energies to transmutate between all bodies to all other chakras for harmonic balance and higher vibrations, particularly when they are cleared and opened.

Sources: Stephanie Lucas and QuantumStones

Reiki Prayers

Prayer establishes and maintains connection with Spirit. It allows for your senses to increase in awareness. Remember that a simple, sincere, heartfelt prayer is the most effective. The following prayers and inspirational thoughts are included as guidelines.

I ask this Great Unseen Healing Force
to remove all obstructions

from my mind and body so that I may be
a pure and open channel for Reiki love and light.
I ask that the Holy Spirit be part of this process,
and that it be for the highest good of all concerned.
I ask my Reiki Guides and Beloveds to draw close to me now
for assistance, guidance and protection.
I ask this in all honesty and sincerity.
and I will humbly and gratefully do my part.
Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.
Reiki be with me.


~E J Sweeny
I honor the place in you where the entire universe resides.
I honor the place in you of love, of light, of truth, of peace.
I honor the place within you where
if you are in that place in you
and
I am in that place in me,
there is only one of us.

~Ram Das
I joyously accept the fullness of the Mighty God Presence -
the Pure Christ.
I am a Child of the Light -
I am protected, illumined,
supplied and sustained by the Light
and I bless the Light.


~ Saint Germaine

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

The Seven Chakras

Chakras are energy centers, vortexes of spinning force existing in the etheric body and extending through the Astral and Mental bodies of all human beings. They correspond to different levels of consciousness and control the physical condition of the area of the body that they influence.

When the flow of energy becomes stagnant or blocked within these centers, an imbalance is created. This imbalance can manifest into physical, mental and/or spiritual dis-ease or illness.

In this post, we are focusing on the seven major Chakras (there are many more).

  • 1 ~ Root (Base)
  • 2 ~ Sacral (Spleen)
  • 3 ~ Solar Plexus (Pancreas or Power)
  • 4 ~ Heart (Thymus)
  • 5 ~ Throat (Thyroid)
  • 6 ~ Brow (Third Eye)
  • 7 ~ Crown (Pineal)

On the etheric level, each of the main Chakras corresponds to one of the Endocrine glands and major Nerve Plexus. The Chakras draw in the Universal Life Force Energy (which is all around us), breaks it down into its component parts and sends it along in streams called Nadis to the Nervous System, Endocrine Glands and finally to the bloodstream.

Reiki attunements align and fine tune the Chakras to receive the energy, much like we tune our radios and televisions to receive stations or channels. Each of the Chakras have a color that is related to them and these colors become significant when working with the Chakra system. These seven colors are the same colors, in the same order, as a rainbow. Each color has its own unique vibration.

Root Chakra:

Located at the base of the Spinal column. In the endocrine system it corresponds to the Adrenal Glands. Governs the Spinal columns and Kidneys. This is where Spirit enters the body. Deals with issues of Survival, Faith, Abundance, Trust. The color is red, the musical note is C.

Sacral Chakra:

Located at the root of the genitalia. In the endocrine system it corresponds to the gonads. Governs the reproductive system. Is the center which deals with Creativity, Sexuality, Sharing. Its area of consciousness is the Emotional body. The color is Orange and the musical note is D.

Solar Plexus Chakra:

Located below the Sternum. In the endocrine system it relates to the pancreas. Governs the liver, stomach, gall bladder, and nervous system. This Chakra reflects the power and control issues of your life. Through the healing of this center there often arises the need to leave behind experiences which limit or restrict movement in your life. There are issues that are holding you back from moving ahead with your life plan or contract. Its area of consciousness is the Mental body. The color is Yellow and the musical note is E.

Heart Chakra:

Located in the middle of your body across from your heart. In the endocrine system it relates to the Thymus. Governs the Heart, Blood, Vargus Nerve and the Circulatory System. Love is the energy which needs to be felt and communicated through this center. This Chakra is the bridge between the upper three and the lower three Chakras. It is within our heart that our sense of God-Source exists. Its area of consciousness is the Astral body. Its color is Green and the musical note is F.

Throat Chakra:

Located at the base of the throat. In the endocrine system it relates to the thyroid. It governs the Lungs, Bronchial and Vocal Chords. It is involved with the areas of communication, both sending and receiving. It is also communication from within the self. Its area of consciousness is the Etheric body. The color is Blue and the Musical note is G.

Brow Chakra:

Also known as the Third Eye, it is located in the space between the eyebrows. It is associated with the pineal gland that secretes the hormone melatonin, regulating sleep and awakening. This center relates to the access of intuition, and leads you to an inner knowledge that will guide you if you let it. Its area of consciousness is the Celestial body. The color is Indigo and the Musical note is A.

Crown Chakra

Located at the top of your head. In the endocrine system it relates to the Pituitary gland. This center governs the cerebral cortex. This is where transcending of the physical plane is possible and the point of conscious consciousness. This center has been described as the corridor through which the body moves beyond. It is the exit point for the Astral body as well as for the consciousness. This is where the energies of healing and inner guidance (Spirit Guides, Guardian Angels, Etc) are drawn. Its area of consciousness is Spiritual. The color is Violet and/or White and the musical note is B.

You can find a lot more information on the Chakras at Chakra Central.

Techniques to Intensify the Power of Reiki

Here are a number of different techniques that can be used to intensify the power Reiki.

The “Homeopathic” Touch

Almost without touching them, very gently massage the zones that you would like to treat for somewhere between 20 seconds and 2 minutes. Then lay hands on them a usual.

According to the Arndt Schulze Rule (from the field of bio-cybernetics), fine impulses stimulate life activities while strong ones inhibit them. The fine impulses of the massage technique explained above direct the attention of the body consciousness to the appropriate area and intensify the body’s perceptive abilities. At the same time, the receptivity is increased. Prepared in this manner, Reiki is absorbed in a much higher degree.

Aura Massage

Calmly hold your hands about 2 or 3 inches above the area to be treated for about 20 seconds, and attune yourself to it. Then let your hands begin to move gently as though you are giving a very gentle massage. Be sure that the palms are always facing your client’s body.

After 20 seconds, again hold your hands calmly still for another 20 seconds and attune yourself. Repeat this technique several times, and then treat as usual.

By relaxing the aura, the possibilities of energy flowing to the body are improved because Reiki clears the aura. In addition, through the fine impulses of aura massage, the attention of the body consciousness is directed to appropriate places. This, in turn, increases the receptivity.

Wherever the attention is focused, the energy will flow more freely in that direction.

Singing Vowels

During the treatment, sing or intone the vowels, A, E, I, O, U, and the sound of the letter M. This stimulates the chakras and the aura to gently increase their vibrational level.

The higher the vibration of a being, the greater the willingness of its organism to absorb Reiki.

Rubbing Hands

Shortly before the beginning of the Reiki treatment, lightly clap your hands together and rub them intensely for a moment. This stimulates the hand chakras, through with Reiki is transmitted, to more intensive activity.

Baby Oil

Rub your hands together with a few drops of baby oil. During the treatment, be careful of sensitive clothing and treat within the aura, if this is possible.

I can’t explain why this technique functions so well, but it is widespread among faith healers and has great results,

For my sources seeRecommended Reading

Hand Positions – Self Treatment

The hand positions on this post are taught by William Rand. You can vary them according to your own needs, although you should give yourself a full treatment as often as possible.

reiki self treatment

Position 1. Place the hands over the face with the fingers at the top of the forehead and the hands touching.

reiki self treatment

Position 2: Place the hands on the top of the head with the fingers touching, but not over-lapping. Palms are close to the top of the ears.

reiki self treatment

Position 3: Place the hands on the sides of the head over the ears.

reiki self treatment

Position 4: Place the hands on the back of the head with the base of the palms at the base of the skull.

reiki self treatment

Position 5: Place the right hand over the throat and the left hand over the heart.

reiki self treatment

Position 6: Place both hands over the shoulders close to the neck.

reiki self treatment

Position 7: Place the hands with the fingers touching over the upper stomach just below the lowest rib.

reiki self treatment

Position 8: Place the hands over the middle of the stomach with the fingers touching at the navel.

reiki self treatment

Position 9: Place the hands on the lower stomach with the base of the hands near or on the hip bones and the finger tips over the pubic bone.

reiki self treatment

Position 10: Place the hands in the middle of the back, fingers touching.

reiki self treatment

Position 11: Place the hands on the lower back with the finger tips over the sacrum.

reiki self treatment

Positions 12: Hold the left foot with both hands in a way that is comfortable.

reiki self treatment

Positions 13: Hold the right foot with both hands in a way that is comfortable.

reiki self treatment

Position 14: Hold the right foot with the right hand and the left foot with the left hand in a way that is comfortable.

reiki self treatment

Position 14 – Alternate: Hold the right foot with the left hand and the left foot with the right hand in a way that is comfortable.

For my sources see: Recommended Reading

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