Miscellaneous Information

Foods That Are Turquoise

I found almost nothing in the way of foods that are naturally a turquoise color. This is what I did find:

Lingcods are sometimes found with amazing, edible blue flesh. A bile pigment called biliverdin seems to be the cause, but exactly how it gets into the flesh of the fish remains a mystery. Cooking destroys the color, but if you are wanting to eat a turquoise colored food, this seems like a possible choice.

There is also a chicken that lays blue or turquoise eggs. It’s called an Araucana. Here’s a picture of the eggs, and yes, they are real. When you crack them open, they look like any other egg.

Here’s a picture of the breed of chicken that lays these eggs:


Favorite Colors – What Do They Mean?

“Oh yes! He loved yellow, did good Vincent… When the two of us were together in Arles, both of us insane, and constantly at war over beautiful colors, I adored red; where could I find a perfect vermilion?” ~Paul Gauguin 


Most of us have a favorite color. Maybe you’re drawn to sky blue because it makes your eyes stand out or you find forest green particularly comforting. Whatever the case, your preferred hue can reveal a lot about what makes you tick. And the same holds true for the people you date — you’d probably have a different impression of a date if he or she said, “My favorite color is yellow” versus “My favorite color is black.” That’s because color speaks a powerful, silent language.


What it represents: Ah, the color of passion, anger and high blood pressure. Red is a primal color. It represents primal urges, like lust (“I must have you now!”) and fury (you know the phrase “seeing red,” right?). Yes, red is a commanding color: think of how stop signs get you to halt in your tracks and how you stand back when a red fire engine goes whizzing by.

Understanding people who love it: They act — sometimes without thinking — on immediate desires. In fact, they’re usually the poster children for immediate gratification. It’s up to you if you go for it… or proceed with caution.


What it represents: OK, orange is not exactly the easiest color to wear and it’s not the most common favorite color, but guess what? Orange is as sensual as it gets. Orange is a mellowed red — and it takes primal, lusty urges and mellows them with a softer vibe. Orange is the color of early attractions, emotional responses, and inner magnetism. Oh, and one other thing: orange is also close to gold, the color of success and wealth.

Understanding people who love it: Someone who likes orange is alive with feelings, the ability to nurture, and can intuit a path to success. If your favorite color is orange, you don’t have an “off” switch when it comes to passion. This is all good stuff, but there’s nothing casual about the connections this kind of person usually forges.


What it represents: Yellow is the color of the sun, vitality, power and ego… but it’s not a great indicator of romance. Watch out for self-centered, “me first” energy when someone prefers yellow to the rest of the rainbow.

Understanding people who love it: If yellow is your favorite color, temper your use of the word “I” when you’re interested in someone else. You can come across as too ego-centric otherwise. Now, if you’re dating someone whose favorite hue is yellow, make sure to jump in and share stories about yourself, since this person may not give you much room.


What it represents: Here is the heart of the matter: green is the color of love. (It’s no coincidence that we make our money in the same color…) Green is the color of life and abundance — leaves, grass, plants — it’s all about growing, expanding, and living. So why don’t we give ferns instead of roses on Valentine’s Day? Because green is about expansive, humanistic love and acceptance, not bodice-ripping romance. What’s more, green is a nice-person color, a “do-gooder, be-gooder” kind of color. This person has a warm heart. Passion is probably in there somewhere, buried under their integrity and honor.

Understanding people who love it: If you love green, you put the greater good before your own good — but try a little selfish behavior once in a while.


What it represents: Blue is a color of clarity, communications and charm. And regardless of the shade, this hue says: “I like to be understood.” On the downside, under stress, a “blue” person can send mixed messages, have trouble making up their mind, or just space out during conversations.

Understanding people who love it: If blue is your favorite color, you never run out of anything to say — expression is your strong suit. And if you’re dating a “blue” person? The same holds true; you should always know where you stand.


What it represents: Purple evokes the energy of illusion, imagination and fantasy. Or should we say purrrrple? Purple tends to inspire coyness, romance, flirtation and teasing — it builds anticipation with a dash of playfulness. The downside of purple is unrealistic expectations. Is it easier to live in your fantasy world than the real world? Some purple-lovers prefer it.

Understanding people who love it: If you love purple, you can be an imaginative romantic or prefer imaginary romance, depending on how you feel.


What it represents: White is light — the combination of all colors. White symbolizes purity (the traditional bridal dress, the christening gown) and spirituality. There’s a simplicity to it, too.

Understanding people who love it: People who love white are probably clean and orderly. While white isn’t the sexiest color, it is certainly healthy.


What it represents: Like white, black is a combination of all colors, but instead of purity, it represents the unknown, the unseen — mystery. Black basically holds back information… but there’s no denying that it has strong associations in our culture with “the dark side” and evil.

Understanding people who love it: If your favorite color is black, you are more hush-hush than high-strung in nature. The silence of this color lets others fill in the blanks. Black says, “I’m not telling you anything.” People who love black can be tough nuts to crack, but quite possibly worth the effort.

You Can Pee a Rainbow


From red to blue to violet, all the colors of the rainbow appear regularly in urine tests conducted at hospital labs.

The prismatic pee collection seen in this stunning photo took only a week to assemble for medical laboratory scientists at Tacoma General Hospital in Tacoma, Wash. Heather West, the laboratory scientist who snapped the picture at the hospital, said she and her colleagues collected the urine colors to highlight their fascinating behind-the-scenes work.

“My picture was intended to illustrate both the incredible and unexpected things the human body is capable of, the curiosity in science, and also the beauty that can be found in unexpected places,” West said. “A mix between art and science.”

None of the urine samples were treated with chemicals in the lab to change their hue, West said. “When I posted the picture [on Flickr], people thought that we did something magical to it. They did not believe it was actually urine,” she said.

Hospital labs are often tucked away in a windowless basement, but they play a critical role in patient health. West, 26, who works the night shift, said a love of science and a wish to work in the medical field drew her to the career. “We are impacting every patient that comes into the hospital in multiple ways,” she said.

While the chromatic colors of pee are amazing, doctors are usually more interested in the contents of urine. Only a few colors, such as red or dark brown, warn that something is wrong with a patient’s health.

“I wouldn’t generally just monitor the color of someone’s urine,” said Kirsten Greene, an assistant professor of urology at the University of California, San Francisco. “But if it’s red or bloody, that’s a really strong cue that there’s infection or cancer, and that’s the one I would worry about the most.”

Here are some of the reasons for the pee shades.


Blood is the most common cause of red urine, and is a definite health warning signal. “As a urologist, I’m always worried when people have red urine,” Greene said. Bladder cancer, infections and kidney stones can all cause bleeding that shows up in urine, and all are worth a trip to the doctor.

More benignly, eating a lot of beets can turn your pee pink.


Dark-colored urine also points to health problems. Liver cancer can cause dark brown urine, containing excess bilirubin, a brownish pigment produced by the liver.

A drug called phenazopyridine (Pyridium) created the bright orange urine seen in West’s photograph. It’s a painkiller given to people with urinary tract infections, and converts pee into a Gatorade-like color.

“Antibiotics often alter urine color to orange,”Green said. “People who eat enough carrots to turn their skin orange can have orange pee, too,” she added.


Many people have seen the effects of dehydration on pee — a dark yellow- colored urine. Without enough water, a pigment called urochrome becomes more concentrated in urine.

On the other hand, in hospitals, some patients on intravenous fluids are so hydrated they produce nearly colorless urine, West said. The cloudy, yellow urine in West’s picture was caused by an infection.


Green urine usually flows from dilution of blue urine, as in West’s image. Occasionally, a urinary tract infection may trigger green pee.


The rarest of all on the pee rainbow, blue urine often comes from chemicals and drugs given to patients. The No. 1 offender is a drug called methylene blue, used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning, and as a dye during surgery. It makes the blue and green urine seen in West’s photograph.

Methylene blue was also a malaria treatment during World War II. Other medications that make blue urine include Viagra, indomethacin and propofol — the anesthetic drug infamously linked with Michael Jackson’s death.

Genetic conditions that affect the breakdown of dietary nutrients can also cause blue urine. Even blue food dyes sometimes passes into pee.

Indigo and Violet

In this photo, the deep purple urine comes from a patient with kidney failure. “The dark black one is something that you usually see in kidney failure,” West said. “Your kidneys should be filtering your blood and getting rid of your waste, and when you damage the kidneys, there’s a lot more blood [in the urine],” she said.

Another violet venue: Patients with catheters can develop a rare complication called “purple urine bag syndrome,” linked to a urinary tract infection and highly alkaline urine. A genetic condition called porphyria may also trigger deep purple pee.


Purple Planet Earth


The earliest life on Earth might have been just as purple as it is green today, a scientist claims.

Ancient microbes might have used a molecule other than chlorophyll to harness the Sun’s rays, one that gave the organisms a violet hue.

Chlorophyll, the main photosynthetic pigment of plants, absorbs mainly blue and red wavelengths from the Sun and reflects green ones, and it is this reflected light that gives plants their leafy color. This fact puzzles some biologists because the sun transmits most of its energy in the green part of the visible spectrum.

“Why would chlorophyll have this dip in the area that has the most energy?” said Shil DasSarma, a microbial geneticist at the University of Maryland.

After all, evolution has tweaked the human eye to be most sensitive to green light (which is why images from night-vision goggles are tinted green). So why is photosynthesis not fine-tuned the same way?

Possible answer

DasSarma thinks it is because chlorophyll appeared after another light-sensitive molecule called retinal was already present on early Earth. Retinal, today found in the plum-colored membrane of a photosynthetic microbe called halobacteria, absorbs green light and reflects back red and violet light, the combination of which appears purple.

Primitive microbes that used retinal to harness the sun’s energy might have dominated early Earth, DasSarma said, thus tinting some of the first biological hotspots on the planet a distinctive purple color.

Being latecomers, microbes that used chlorophyll could not compete directly with those utilizing retinal, but they survived by evolving the ability to absorb the very wavelengths retinal did not use, DasSarma said.

“Chlorophyll was forced to make use of the blue and red light, since all the green light was absorbed by the purple membrane-containing organisms,” said William Sparks, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Maryland, who helped DasSarma develop his idea.

Chlorophyll more efficient

The researchers speculate that chlorophyll- and retinal-based organisms coexisted for a time. “You can imagine a situation where photosynthesis is going on just beneath a layer of purple membrane-containing organisms,” DasSarma told LiveScience.

But after a while, the researchers say, the balance tipped in favor of chlorophyll because it is more efficient than retinal.

“Chlorophyll may not sample the peak of the solar spectrum, but it makes better use of the light that it does absorb,” Sparks explained.

DasSarma admits his ideas are currently little more than speculation, but says they fit with other things scientists know about retinal and early Earth.

For example, retinal has a simpler structure than chlorophyll, and would have been easier to produce in the low-oxygen environment of early Earth, DasSarma said.

Also, the process for making retinal is very similar to that of a fatty acid, which many scientists think was one of the key-ingredients for the development of cells.

“Fatty acids were likely needed to form the membranes in the earliest cells,” DasSarma said.

Lastly, halobacteria, a microbe alive today that uses retinal, is not a bacterium at all. It belongs to a group of organisms called archaea, whose lineage stretches back to a time before Earth had an oxygen atmosphere.

Taken together, these different lines of evidence suggest retinal formed earlier than chlorophyll, DasSarma said.

The team presented its so-called “purple Earth” hypothesis earlier this year at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society, and it is also detailed in the latest issue of the magazine American Scientist. The team also plans to submit the work to a peer-reviewed science journal later this year.

Caution needed

David Des Marais, a geochemist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, calls the purple Earth hypothesis “interesting,” but cautions against making too much of one observation.

“I’m a little cautious about looking at who’s using which wavelengths of light and making conclusions about how things were like 3 or 4 billion years ago,” said Des Marais, who was not involved in the research.

Des Marais said an alternative explanation for why chlorophyll doesn’t absorb green light is that doing so might actually harm plants.

“That energy comes screaming in. It’s a two-edged sword,” Des Marais said in a telephone interview. “Yes, you get energy from it, but it’s like people getting 100 percent oxygen and getting poisoned. You can get too much of a good thing.”

Des Marais points to cyanobacteria, a photosynthesizing microbe with an ancient history, which lives just beneath the ocean surface in order to avoid the full brunt of the Sun.

“We see a lot of evidence of adaptation to get light levels down a bit,” Des Marais said. “I don’t know that there’s necessarily an evolutionary downside to not being at the peak of the solar spectrum.”

Implications for astrobiology

If future research validates the purple Earth hypothesis, it would have implications for scientists searching for life on distant worlds, the researchers say.

“We should make sure we don’t lock into ideas that are entirely centered on what we see on Earth,” said DasSarma’s colleague, Neil Reid, also of the STScI.

For example, one biomarker of special interest in astrobiology is the “red edge” produced by plants on Earth. Terrestrial vegetation absorbs most, but not all, of the red light in the visible spectrum. Many scientists have proposed using the small portion of reflected red light as an indicator of life on other planets.

“I think when most people think about remote sensing, they’re focused on chlorophyll-based life,” DasSarma said. “It may be that is the more prominent one, but if you happen to see a planet that is at this early stage of evolution, and you’re looking for chlorophyll, you might miss it because you’re looking at the wrong wavelength.”


The Psychology of Color

“Color has got me. I no longer need to chase after it. It has got me for ever. I know it. That is the meaning of this happy hour” ~Paul Klee   


Color is a form of non-verbal communication. It is not a static energy and its meaning can change from one day to the next with any individual.

For example:

  • A person may choose to wear red one day and this may indicate they are ready to take action, or they may be passionate about what they are going to be doing that day, or again it may mean that they are feeling angry that day, on either a conscious or subconscious level.
  • Orange is the color of social communication and optimism. From a negative color meaning it is also a sign of pessimism and superficiality.
  • Yellow is the color of the mind and the intellect. It is optimistic and cheerful. However it can also suggest impatience, criticism and cowardice.
  • Green is the color of balance and growth. It can mean both self-reliance as a positive and possessiveness as a negative, among many other meanings.
  • Blue is the color of trust and peace. It can suggest loyalty and integrity as well as conservatism and frigidity.
  • Indigo is the color of intuition. In the meanings of colors it can mean idealism and structure as well as ritualistic and addictive.
  • Purple is the color of the imagination. It can be creative and individual or immature and impractical.
  • Turquoise is communication and clarity of mind. It can also be impractical and idealistic.
  • Pink is the color of unconditional love and nurturing. Pink can also be immature, silly and girlish.
  • Magenta is a color of universal harmony and emotional balance. It is spiritual yet practical, encouraging common sense and a balanced outlook on life.
  • Gray is the color of compromise – being neither black nor white; it is the transition between two non-colors.
  • The color silver, however, has a feminine energy; it is related to the moon and the ebb and flow of the tides – it is fluid, emotional, sensitive and mysterious.
  • Gold is the color of success, achievement and triumph. Associated with abundance and prosperity, luxury and quality, prestige and sophistication, value and elegance, the color psychology of gold implies affluence, material wealth and extravagance.
  • White is color at its most complete and pure, the color of perfection. The color meaning of white is purity, innocence, wholeness and completion.
  • Black is the color of the hidden, the secretive and the unknown, creating an air of mystery. It keeps things bottled up inside, hidden from the world.

Green In Media And Design


Some of the ways the color green is used in the media and for design purposes:

  • Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety.
  • Dark green is also commonly associated with money.
  • Green suggests stability and endurance.
  • Green, as opposed to red, means safety; it is the color of free passage in road traffic.
  • Use green to indicate safety when advertising drugs and medical products.
  • Green is directly related to nature, so you can use it to promote ‘green’ products.
  • Dull, darker green is commonly associated with money, financial world, banking, and Wall Street.

Submitted by Raetta Parker

Yellow In Media And Design


Some of the ways the color yellow is used in the media and for design purposes:

  • Yellow is often associated with food.
  • Bright, pure yellow is an attention grabber that’s why taxicabs are painted this color.
  • Yellow is seen before other colors when placed against black; this combination is often used to issue a warning.
  • Use yellow to evoke pleasant, cheerful feelings.
  • Yellow is very effective for attracting attention, so use it to highlight the most important elements of your design.
  • Men usually perceive yellow as a very lighthearted, ‘kiddish’ color, so it is not recommended to use yellow when selling prestigious, expensive products to men – nobody will buy a yellow business suit or a yellow Mercedes.
  • Yellow is an unstable and spontaneous color, so avoid using yellow if you want to suggest stability and safety.
  • Light yellow tends to disappear into white, so it usually needs a dark color to highlight it.
  • Shades of yellow are visually unappealing because they loose cheerfulness and become dingy.

Submitted by Raetta Parker

Red In Media And Design


Some of the ways the color red is used in the media and for design purposes:

  • Red brings text and images to the foreground.
  • Use it as an accent color to stimulate people to make quick decisions; it is a perfect color for ‘Buy Now’ or ‘Click Here’ buttons on Internet banners and websites.
  • This color is also commonly associated with energy, so you can use it when promoting energy drinks, games, cars, items related to sports and high physical activity.

Submitted by Raetta Parker

Red Is A Green Issue


Red keeps us rooted in the red energy of our planet. People who become detached or divorced from the planet tend to be those who abuse it. These people often display some of the negative qualities that are associated with red – selfishness and an interest only in personal, rather than global, survival and short-term security.

To be healthy in a long term sense, we need the color red to reconnect ourselves to the planet and support it as it supports us. For our personal development, the role involves taking responsibility for our own well being and survival as part of humanity as a whole, not being separate from it. Although often seen as a “green” issue, global and local conservation is also about survival, which is a red issue. Red and green issues are intrinsically linked as they are complementary colors.

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Astronauts Wear Orange


NASA wasn’t trying to make a fashion statement when it picked bright orange for the spacesuits astronauts wear when they launch and land on the space shuttle.

In fact, that bright hue called International Orange was chosen for safety, because it stands out so well against a landscape.

“It’s highly visible for search and rescue,” said Brian Daniel, shuttle crew escape subsystem manager at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. “It’s one of the most visible colors, especially for sea rescue.”

The same shade of orange coats San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge and Japan’s 1,090-foot (333-meter) tall Tokyo Tower.

The shuttle ascent and entry suit, called the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), is a pressurized shell designed to help an astronaut survive if an accident occurred during liftoff or landing. The suit contains a supply of air and water, along with a parachute and survival gear such as radios, flares and medicine.

The current version of the suit was adopted in 1994, though the previous version, called the Launch Entry Suit (LES), was the same color. [Graphic: Cosmic Apparel Over the Years]

Before the space shuttle, U.S. astronauts wore white or silver suits.

And today’s NASA astronauts wear a completely different suit for spacewalks, or extravehicular activities (EVAs). These suits are designed for a different purpose survival in the near-vacuum of space, rather than survival on Earth.

Thus EVA suits are white, which reflects the strong heat of the sun and stands out against the black expanse of space. These suits are called Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), and are even bulkier than the ACES. They include temperature control, breathable air and drinkable water, and a tough shell to prevent small pieces of space junk, called micrometeoroids, from harming the astronauts.

Russia has its own spacesuits the Sokol suit for launch and landing, and the Orlan suit for spacewalks for those flying aboard Soyuz spacecraft. Both of these suits are white, and function similarly to their U.S. counterparts, with some differences.

China the third nation to independently launch humans into space has its own custom-designed spacesuits for spacewalking called Feitian suits, modeled on Orlan suits. Chinese astronauts have worn suits that closely resemble Sokol suits for launch and landing.


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Color! What a deep and mysterious language, the language of dreams. ~ Paul Gauguin
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